Invasive species are a reoccurring theme throughout Hawai’i from land to sea. While some are worse than others, they all pose a threat to the unique and native ecosystem of our island state. One of the most threatening invasive species to our coral reef ecosystem is Gracilaria salicornia, or gorilla ogo. Found in tide pools and on reef flats, gorilla ogo forms thick mats, smothering and carpeting any life reef structure much unlike its deliciously edible native counterparts, G. parvispora and G. coronopifolia, (ogo and limu manauea.) The invasive gorilla ogo reproduces both sexually and asexually by fragmentation; any small piece of algae can break off, float away and establish a new population. The algae was introduced to both Kāneʻohe Bay and Waikīkī in the 1970s but has since spread to Hawaiʻi Island and Molokaʻi.
gorilla ogo (PC: UH)
limu manauea (PC: UH)
ogo (PC: UH)
What a nightmare!
Last week, Brad and Kirsten hopped on over to Molokaʻi with folks from the Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) Aquatic Invasive Species team and the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to help Molokaʻi’s community survey the gorilla ogo distribution along their southern coast. The community has expressed concern about the gorilla ogo distribution as it is inhibiting their fishpond production and hurting their fishing efforts; much of the island’s population subsists off the land and their environment is one of their most prized attributes.
DAR, OHA, and TNC helped to teach 40+ community members over three days how to use GPS, measure sediment depth, and identify invasive and native algae. Together, we covered over 14 miles of shoreline and mapped thousands of GPS points. The Molokaʻi community can now independently continue their efforts to map the remaining miles of the south shore and will be working with DAR and TNC in the future to develop and management plan for the gorilla ogo population.
Bleaching is putting coral reefs around the globe in even greater danger than they already are. A result of warmer ocean temperatures, coral bleaching causes change in color and can result in death of the symbiotic algae within the coral skeleton.
PC: David Slater
NOAA has sent out a warning report, finding that a global coral bleaching event that began last year in the Pacific Ocean may be spreading to the western Atlantic – and to Hawaiʻi. This not only means harm to Hawaiʻi’s beautiful blue seas but could have an effect on the long-term supply of seafood and a decline in the state’s tourism-based economy.
A study by NOAA quantified the economic value of the Hawaiʻi’s coral reefs at almost $34 billion.
Although as much as 60 percent of Hawaiʻi’s corals have bleached since last fall, 90 percent of the corals have recovered and even reproduced; a sign of good coral health and maybe even resilience. However, with higher than average ocean temperatures already this year, the idea of a second bleaching event brings some fright.
If you live in Hawaiʻi nei and observe coral bleaching or invasive species, please submit a report with Eyes of the Reef Hawaiʻi.
To learn more about coral bleaching and ways scientists are working to combat it, click here.
Bring your own bag!
Today, Oʻahu will join the rest of the state in the plastic bag ban. Retail stores will no longer provide plastic bags at the checkout, and some will offer paper or alternatives at a fee.
Plastics contribute to the majority of today’s trash floating in the ocean. The average American throws away approximately 185 pounds of plastic a year. 500 billion plastic bags are used world wide, that is more than one million bags used every minute. [ecowatch.com]
Hawaiʻi is proud to be taking a step toward less plastic and less pollution, one step at a time.
As of July 1, Hawaiʻi will become the second state to implement a court dedicated exclusively to environmental issues.
Last week Friday, Kirsten and Brad attended a symposium at the UH Mānoa Richardson School of Law, where they learned about environmental court systems around the world, the history of Hawaiʻi’s environmental court, how the Hawaiʻi’s court will work. The symposium was facilitated by Denise Antolini, associate law dean at UH Mānoa’s law school who previously served on the Commission of Water Resource Management.
India has the largest and most powerful environmental courts in the world, the National Green Tribunal of India (NGT). The chairperson of the NGT, Swatanter Kumar along with Dr. C. Raj Kumar, the Vice Chancellor of the O.P. Jindal Global University and Dean of the Jindal Global Law school and four of his students were in attendance at the symposium to share about their court and experiences in environmental law.
There is no better place for an environmental court; the State of Hawaiʻi is incredibly dependent on its beautiful natural environment not only to sustain its tourism-based economy but most importantly for resources to house and feed its residents. Hawaiʻi has a strong constitutional foundation and environmental laws already in place, its just a matter of educating and enforcing the existing infrastructure.
The environmental court will be statewide, with district and circuit courts in each of Hawaiʻi’s counties. 22 judges familiar with and trained in environmental law have been appointed to serve in this court. The court will cover cases dealing in environmental impact statements and assessments, Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR): Division of Boating and Ocean Recreation (DOBOR), Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), water commission issues, and mostly Divison of Conservation and Resource Enforcement (DOCARE) violations.
Hawaiian rights will also be an important part of the environmental court. “Even though it’s not explicit, it is interwoven in a lot of cases, sometimes criminal and sometimes civil”, says Denise Antolini.
Click here to read more.
Today, after much preparation, the voyaging canoe Hikianalia, set sail for Papahānaumokuākea for a 2 week cruise. Aboard the waʻa are four scientists from The Nature Conservancy and a couple of community members from Kaʻūpūlehu and Polanui, along side previous marine fellow, captain Kaleo Wong and some of the Hōkūleʻa crew.
Hikianalia is the sister vessel to Hōkūleʻa, both modeled after traditional voyaging canoes sailed by early Polynesians to Hawaiʻi. Hikianalia holds modern equipment and technology, allowing the Polynesian Voyaging Society (PVS) to bring the classroom with them as they voyage around the world.
While at Nihoa, the community members will be conducting underwater biological surveys using the exact same protocol that they use at home, providing data that will be comparable and comprehensive.
Kalani is also headed up to Papahānaumokuākea on a research vessel to participate in archaeological surveys on Nihoa.
We look forward to sharing more about their experiences as we learn more. Updates and more photos to come soon!
TNC Hawai’i is so proud to announce that we have cut fossil fuel use on Palmyra Atoll by 95%. After years of planning, a wind turbine, 385 solar panels and 216 batteries have been installed on the research station, replacing the annual 21,000 gallon shipment of diesel fuel previously used to run the atoll’s generators.
Palmyra, located 1,000 miles south of Hawai’i is a remote atoll co-owned and managed as a scientific research station and national wildlife refuge by The Nature Conservancy and The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The remote atoll not accessible by commercial flight, is home to outstanding coral reef and tropical island ecosystems.
Click here to read more.
Palmyra prototype wind turbine. Photo: Cindy Coker
Palmyra solar panels. Photo: Jay Fries
Check out this new article featuring our very own Brad Stubbs in the upcoming TNC newsletter!
“Surfing is my favorite way to connect with the ocean and fostered my interest in marine conservation” -Brad